Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a networking protocol used to resolve the media access control (MAC) address of a device on a local area network (LAN) from its Internet Protocol (IP) address.

In a LAN, devices communicate with each other using their MAC addresses, which are unique identifiers assigned to each device by the manufacturer. However, most devices also have an IP address, which is used to identify them on the Internet.

When a device on a LAN wants to send a packet of data to another device, it needs to know the MAC address of the destination device. This is where ARP comes in. When a device needs to send a packet to another device, it broadcasts an ARP request on the LAN, asking for the MAC address of the destination device. The destination device responds with its MAC address, and the sender can then use this address to send the packet directly to the destination device.

ARP is an important protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite, and is essential for the smooth functioning of local area networks. It allows devices to communicate with each other using their IP addresses, while still using the MAC addresses required for communication on the LAN.

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